Friday, June 19, 2009

Lighting Report

1.0 Introduction
This report presents the study of lighting quality and condition of a double-storey shop lot
(My Bookstore) at Seri Kembangan. The following gives an introduction to general purpose of
study and limitation of data collection. This introduction also gives a overall preview of this
1.1 General Purpose of Study
This report aims to analyze the lighting quality and condition of a double-storey
commercial building and provide recommendation to improve efficiency of lighting of the
mentioned shop lot.
The goal of this study is to improve lighting system of My Bookstore in 3 aspects which
are efficient and sufficient illumination. Last but not least, improve the aesthetic of lighting
system is also another major task in this study.
1.2 Limitation of Data Collection
There are 2 limitation of data collection in this study. Firstly, the first floor has limited
glazing for day lighting. The windows are blocked by the furniture, which is the book rack for
display purpose.
The next limitation of data collection is limited light type to be study. The bookstore uses
only 1 type of artificial lighting for single purpose. Thus this study does not expose us to special
lighting design such as theater and show room that emphasize on aesthetic besides practicality.
In the end of this report, recommendation on day lighting and aesthetic of lighting shall
be come after practicality of lighting and efficiency of lighting.
1.3 Preview of Report
This report will showcase the different types of lighting involved in the building. A set of
scaled drawing of the shop lot will be given together with the relevant plan, elevations and
sections prior to get a better analysis on how the lighting works. It is because different space will
be identifying different types of lighting.
After we venture into the building and data collection aspects, analysis will be produced
to evaluate the lighting quality and condition of that shop lot. Problem of the lighting qualities
will be discussed and then provide with recommendations to make sure lightings perform better
than initially designed.
2.0 Methodology
Few steps were done to collect data about lighting quality and the space. Firstly,
recording site inventory was been done and followed by user analysis. Then we record clarify the
function or activities in the bookstore which is classified as retail shop. According to Charted
Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), illuminance (Lux) of a retail shop shall be
maintained at 500 lux.
(Table 1.0 Example of Activities/Interiors Appropriate for Each Maintained Illuminance,
Reproduced with permission from CIBSE by Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 10th
edition, 1994)
Next, a full set of scaled drawings will be produce after the first site visit. Subsequently,
furniture analysis will be done. Then, colours and materials of the interior finishes needed to be
recorded for later analysis. Last but not least, Lux Meter is been used to get readings of
illuminance at the interior of book store.
2.1 Site Inventory
This section of the report introduces the site of the retail shop, site analysis, and also the
building analysis.
2.1.1 Site Introduction
The shop lot that we chose is a retail shop which provides books, stationeries, and also
household items to the community in Seri Kembangan. Big range of group age people would
visit the store from small kids to senior citizens. Therefore adequate lighting is important to
ensure the visibility for senior citizens.
2.1.2 Site Analysis
In the macro site analysis, the site is located in a new piece of land in Seri Kembangan
which used as commercial land. While for the micro site analysis, “My Bookstore” has limited
opening, which is at the front facing the parking and road. The open space at the front has little
obstruction for the entering of day light.
(Figure 2.1 Location Map)
(Figure 2.2 Site Plan)
Blue Coloured Area is the location of “My Bookstore” while the pink coloured area is the
neighboring building mass. White Colour zone is the empty space.
2.2 User Analysis
During analysis, the occupants for visiting the book store mostly are children with parents,
students and readers. The group age of visitors is big range from children to senior citizens. It is
important that the occupants or users satisfied with the environment that they were in. The
connection to sequential qualities of light improves human psychologically well being in certain
environment. Bookstore, researchers found out that reader with sufficient lighting will more
enjoy the readings. In another study, retail store or bookstores were found to have a “daylight
effect on increased monthly sales” (Heschong Mahone, 1999-2003).
2.3 Scaled Drawings
Scale Drawings method help to record the lighting layout and zoning. This is a very
important step to clarify the function of the zone and the layout of lighting. Besides, from the
scaled plan, grid lines are drawn 2m by 2m for recording lux meter reading at the next step.
As shown in Figure 2.1, down lighting system were used at Zone B and C at the Ground
Floor, spacing each other 2m by 2m. As shown in Figure 2.1 Working Plane is defined as 1.0 m
from the floor, and the height of the lighting is at ceiling level (2700 from floor).
Figure 2.3 Ground Floor Plan
Figure 2.4 Ground Floor Lighting Layout Plan
Figure 2.5 First Floor Lighting Layout Plan
Figure 2.6 Section A-A
Figure 2.7 Section B-B Plan
2.4 Furniture Analysis
There are different kind of furniture used at the ground floor and first floor. Furniture at
ground floor is has better reflectance compared to furniture at first floor. There are 2 major
furniture at the ground floor which are grey timber bookshelves and red and cream colour plastic
book rack. While for the first floor, there is only 1 type of furniture that is Brown timber
Figure 2.8 Grey timber Bookshelves.
Figure 2.9 Red and Cream colour plastic book rack at Ground Floor.
Figure 2.10 Brown Timber Bookshelves at First Floor
2.5 Interior Finishes
The interior floor finishes is cream colour homogenous tile. The wall is finishes with
white colour painting while the ceiling is white plastered ceiling. These materials have adequate
Structure Material
Floor Marble 45
Wall White Paint 75
Ceiling Plaster Smooth 80
(Table 2.0 Interior Finishes Reflectance)
Figure 2.11 Ground Floor Plan-Materials Indication
Figure 2.12 First Floor Plan-Materials Indication
Figure 2.13 Section A-A -Materials Indication
2.6 Lux Meter
The lux meter is use to record the readings of the light in unit lux. This Minolta lux meter
is very sensitive to light and high accuracy of lux readings can be record using this lux meter.
Without any obstruction around, the lux meter was placed 1m above floor level
(assuming work plan for the bookstore is 1m above floor level) to take the readings. To get a
better understanding of the lighting system in the bookstore, the whole area has been divided into
small parts consist of 2m x 2m grid lines. Reading was taken 3 times (for accuracy) at every spot
of the grid line produced after scaled drawings. Readings has been taken at 3 different times
which are (morning), 5pm (evening), 8pm (night). These readings are useful for the
calculations method of the existing and required lux for the lighting solutions.
Figure 2.14 Lux Meter
3.0 Results and Analysis
Results were classified into 2 aspects, day lighting and artificial lighting.
3.1 Day lighting
Day Light Factor
Day Light Factor at 10am
Out Door Illumination (Eo) 15000 lux
Working Plane 1.0m
Day light Factor (DF)=(Ei/Eo) x 100
Where Ei=illuminance due to daylight at a point on the indoors
working plane
Where Eo=simultaneous outdoor illuminance on a horizontal plane
from an unobstructed hemisphere of overcast sky
DF @ 0.5 H 697 4.65
DF @ H 421 2.81
DF @ 2H 358 2.39
DF @ 3H 337 2.25
DF @ 4H 305 2.03
DF @ 5H 219 1.46
DF @ 6H 197 1.31
DF @ 7H 180 1.20
DF @ 8H 180 1.20
Figure 3.1 Day Light Factor at 10am
Day Light Factor at 4pm
Out Door Illumination (Eo) 15000 lux
Working Plane 1.0m
Day light Factor (DF)=(Ei/Eo) x 100
Where Ei=illuminance due to daylight at a point on the indoors
working plane
Where Eo=simultaneous outdoor illuminance on a horizontal plane
from an unobstructed hemisphere of overcast sky
DF @ 0.5 H 540 3.60
DF @ H 291 1.94
DF @ 2H 256 1.71
DF @ 3H 250 1.67
DF @ 4H 239 1.59
DF @ 5H 228 1.52
DF @ 6H 185 1.23
DF @ 7H 180 1.20
DF @ 8H 180 1.20
Figure 3.2 Day Light Factor at 4pm
At the ground floor, day lighting was brought in by the south east façade, which is the
front elevation of the bookstore. Wide pieces of glass were used for the purpose of advertising its
products, has another benefit to bring in day lighting. However, there are only little portion of
space are benefited by day lighting due to the deep plan. In addition, there are no additional
openings or glazing at the other 3 elevations for allowing the entering of day lighting.
At the first floor, all the windows that bringing in day lights are been covered by racks.
Thus, there are no day lights at the first floor.
Day light brought into the building during morning covered up the area as shown in
Figure 0.0. Due to the south east facing façade, there are no direct sun light. This make the day
lighting are not adequate to cover up the whole plan. However, the quantity of lighting is
sufficient at the portion highlighted.
Day lighting during evening (4pm) has not much different with morning period. Same
portion of place could receive adequate day lighting. This area is also highlighted in FIGURE 0.0.
However, after 8pm, there are totally no day lighting as sun have been fully set around 7.30pm.
3.2 Artificial lighting
There are two types of luminaire used in this retail shop. These luminaries are fluorescent
lamps tube and compact florescent light bulb.
Fluorescent lamps tubes are use at the ground floor zone A. The retail or reading area on
the ground floor needs higher illuminance. The reason for doing that is because the shop lot
owner intends to cut cost on building up the plaster ceiling and lighting cost.
Rapid Start Fluorescent lamp
Two rapid start fluorescent lamps is being used in a single luminaire
Watts : 36
Bulb : T12
Base : Med. Bipin
Description : Daylight Deluxe, 6200 K
Color Rendering Index : 84
Approx Life (Hrs) : 13000
Lumens Output : 2600 lm.72 lm/w
Material : Anode Ring to avoid blackening in lamp ends. Triple Coil for
extra long life.
Figure 3.3 Fluorescent lamp
PHILIPS PL-H™ HIGH OUTPUT Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Downlight System
Compact fluorescent bulbs are used at the ground floor Zone B and Zone C and the upper
floor. According to “My Bookstore’s” shop lot owner, the reason for choosing ceiling mounted
down lights is to achieve a flat ceiling for aesthetic value.
Feature : 4 Pin Fluorescent Lamp
Watts : 60
Bulb : PL-H
Base : 2G8
Color Rendering Index : 82
Approx Life (Hrs) : 20,000
Lumens : 2000
Materials and Finish : White extrusion aluminium housing. Die-cast aluminium inner
ring. Polycarbonate plastic outer ring. Aluminium reflector.
Figure 3.4 Compact Fluorescent Lamps( Down light system)
4.0 Conclusion
After analyzed the data collected, this section will be concluding the Strengths and
Weaknesses (problems) of the existing lighting at “Mybookstore”. The overall lighting at “My
bookstore” is not adequate, especially at the first floor.
The goal for lighting design is to provide sufficient illumination for acceptable visual
performance. At the same time, we should also consider the efficiency of lighting especially
design for business purpose. The efficiency of lighting can be understood as using no additional
cost to achieve sufficient lighting.
To achieve efficient and sufficient illumination for a retail shop like “My Bookstore”, the
quantity of lights must be sufficient (500 lux as mentioned in FIGURE 0.0). In order to reach the
aim of 500 lux, factors to be considered include the finishes material. Besides, it is also
important to utilize the free resource (day light) to reduce cost for lighting. Last but not least,
choosing the right type of artificial lighting and placing at the right place is also another factor to
be considered for achieving efficient and sufficient lighting. It is also recommended to have good
monitoring of artificial lighting to utilize the day lighting.
4.1 Interior Finishes
Applying the wrong colours and materials for the interior finishes can make additional
cost to the lighting. Hence, high reflectance materials are recommended for interior finishes to
reduce the amount of lighting needed for sufficient lighting.
The interior finishes had chosen the suitable material for achieving good lighting quality.
The colours and materials chosen are high reflectance materials as shown in the Table 2.0. With
these high reflectance materials, the interior can be illuminated more efficient.
4.2 Day Lighting
Due to the limitation of openings that a shop lot have which is on the front and rear side,
the day lighting design is been minimized. However, as being in a country that near to equator,
sun light is very constant and adequate throughout the year. Thus, that is also important to
include day lighting into building lighting system design, especially to achieve efficient lighting.
The day lighting in “My bookstore” was not properly design. However, at the ground
floor, there are big pieces of glass at the front façade for windows advertisement has brought out
the opportunity for day lighting. These big pieces of glass have brought in day lighting to the
area highlighted in Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2.
Conversely, My Bookstore’s owner has totally turned out the day lighting at the first
floor. The rack for displaying books (its product) has covered up the windows. This action has to
be reconsidered as it does not utilize the free resources that a equator country has.
4.3 Artificial Lighting
A book store is where consumers enjoying the readings and retail in the surrounding. It
is important to provide comfortable surroundings for the consumer. Lightings play an important
function to produce a tremendous atmosphere.
During analysis, the reading for Zone A and B is higher than Zone C. Lightings is
efficient at Zone A. Aesthetic value is not achieved due to no ceiling. Fluorescents tubes is much
more sufficient at Zone A comparing to Zone B and C.
Figure 4.1 Ground Floor Lux Meter Reading Taken on 10:00a.m
For Zone B and C, aesthetic values is achieve because of flat ceiling is apply. The
down light ceiling mounted is inefficient. Bulb of the down light is too inner of the core.
Luminaire is not enough to glare out. Bulb should be adjusting a bit. These types of ceiling
mounted down light are not recommended in this retailing shop or bookstore.
For the first floor, the reflectance of furniture is the main issue to occur the
luminance in the room. The color that applies on furniture is dark. This is the main factor that
takes place. The aesthetic value is attaining since flat ceiling is use. The down light on the first
floor is ineffective because of using lower lumen types of compact fluorescents. The down light
system apply on the upper floor is not sufficient.
Figure 4.2 First Floor Lux Meter Reading Taken on 10:00a.m
5.0 Recommendation
To achieve the goal of efficient and sufficient lighting with aesthetic values, below are
the recommendations to improve the existing lighting condition in terms of efficiency,
sufficiency and aesthetic.
5.1 Day Lighting at First Floor
There are solutions that can be sort out by redesign or replacing the arrangement of
furniture and the lightings so luminaries can be achieved. For the first floor, furniture are
blocking where the natural lighting opening. Therefore, there are no natural light in the first floor
and the insufficient amount of light causes the first floor to be quite dim. . They should have
some openings in the first floor but still could maintain the number of racks in it. Book shelves
near the opening can be redesign into half rack for allowing natural lightings into the room. The
illustration below shows the opening of the wall and type of racks to be used in that area.
Figure 5.1 New design of space allowing day lighting, while maintaining the rack.
5.2 Proposing other type of Lighting
Artificial lighting type which is used in Zone B, Zone C and Level One is unsuitable in
the bookstore. It does not provide enough luminance to the bookstore. Rapid start fluorescent
lamp is recommended to be used in that 3 area. Using this type of lighting is easier to maintain
compared to the downlight system. Below is the properties of the rapid start fluorescent lamp. By
enhancing the lighting for the “My Bookstore”, owner can apply Direct-indirect fluorescents.
Figure 5.2 Rapid start fluorescent lamp
Watts : 40
Bulb : T12
Base : Med. Bipin
Description : Daylight Deluxe, 6500 K
Colour Rendering Index : 84
Approx Life (Hrs) : 20,000
Lumens : 2325
Material : Plastic uncovered ballast which fits two T12 fluorescent
5.2.1 Calculation for the number of light source
After choosing the light type, calculation had to be made for designing a efficient and
sufficient lighting layout. This Lighthing design will be separate into 2 parts, the Ground Floor
and First Floor. Ground Floor
Area of the book store : 361 meter square
Ceiling height : 2.7 meter
Working plane : 1 meter
Illumination of the fluorescent light : 2325 lumens
Reflectance: Ceiling – 0.80
Wall - 0.75
Floor - 0.45
DLOR – 70%
Light loss factor, LLF : 0.9
Illumination of the café, E : 500 lux
Room index, K = L X w
H (L + w)
= 361
1.7 (19 + 19)
= 361
= 5.58
Utilization factor, UF: 0.79
Calculate amount of new lighting layout
Using the lumen method formula :
N = E x A
F x UF x LLF
= 500 x 361
2325 x 0.79 x 0.9
= 180500
= 109.19
= 110 lamps
Suggested layout : 11 rows of 10 lamps
Figure 5.3 Proposing Lighting Layout at Ground Floor
31 First Floor
Area of the book store : 286 meter square
Ceiling height : 2.7 meter
Working plane : 1 meter
Illumination of the fluorescent light : 2325 lumens
Reflectance: Ceiling – 0.80
Wall - 0.75
Floor - 0.45
DLOR – 70%
Light loss factor, LLF : 0.9
Illumination of the café, E : 500 lux
Room index, K = L X w
H (L + w)
= 286
1.7 (22+13)
= 286
= 4.80
Utilization factor, UF: 0.77
Calculate amount of new lighting layout
Using the lumen method formula :
N = E x A
F x UF x LLF
= 500 x 286
2325 x 0.77 x 0.9
= 143000
= 86.5
= 86 lamps
Suggested layout : 8 rows of 12 lamps
Figure 5.3 Proposing Lighting Layout at First Floor
5.3 Monitoring Artificial Lighting Zone
Monitoring system for the lighting can be use at the ground floor. It can be applied near
the entrance where there are enough daylight to light up the area. When there are sufficient day
lightings, lights can be switched off for electric efficiency and cost saving. Figure 5.5 shows the
area where monitoring system could be applied in the book store.
Figure 5.5 Monitored zone according to the day lighting.
Reference List
Author Unknown 2007, Philips Electronic, E-Catalogue Retrieved on: 6 March 2007 at
Author Unknown 2007, Osram, Design Principles, Retrieved on: 6 March 2007 at
Stein B, Reynolds JS, Grondzik WT, Kwok AG, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for
Building (Tenth Edition) 2006, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Szokolay S. V, Introduction to Architectural Science: The Basis of Sustainable Design.
2004, Architectural Press.

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